Computer Basic (A brief of Computer Fundamentals & Generations, Components, Memory, Software and Hardware)

Computer Fundamentals and Generations

A computer is an electronic machine which takes data as an input from the user process the data and gives information as an output to the user. It means it process data and gives desired output as information. It performs very fast comparing to human being.
It comes in a vast of variety according to their size, work and purpose.

  1. Based on Size : Micro Computer, Mainframe Computer, Mini Computer, Super Computer
  2. Based on Work : Analog Computer, Digital Computer and Hybrid Computer
  3. Based on Purpose: General Purpose and Special Purpose

The computer generations are classified in different years. These are following:

Ist Generation
Year: 1940-1950
Used: Vacuum Tubes
Memory: Magnetic Drums
Language: Machine Language
Performance: Very slow & expensive

IInd Generation
Year : 1950-1960
Used: Transistors
Memory: Magnetic Tape
Language: Assembly Language, High Level Language (Fortron, Cobol)
Computer: IBM 7094, UNIVAC 1107
Performance: Slightly faster & cheaper

IIIrd Generation
Year : 1960-1970
Used: Integrated Circuits (ICs), Motherboards, Operating Systems
Memory: Magnetic Core
Language: High Level Language (Basic)
Computer: NCR-395, IBM 360
Performance: Multitasking, fast, cheap

IVth Generation
Year: 1970-Present
Used: Large Scale Integrated Circuit (LSI), Microprocessor
Memory: Semi-Conductor Memory, Winchester Disk
Language: High Level Language (Pascal, C, C++, Java)
Computer: Cray1, IBM z9, Desktop, Laptop, Tablets
Performance: Fast & Cheap with GUI Interface (Windows, Macintosh, Linux)

Vth Generation
Year: Present and Future
Used: Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSI)
Memory: Hard Disk, Pen Drive
Language: High Level Language (Node.JS, Ruby, Swift, Python and Many more)
Computer: Super Computers, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Self Drive Cars and many more
Performance: Very Fast & Smart, Multitasking


These are the parts of the computer. It is divided in to three components:

  1. Input Device
  2. Central Processing Unit
  3. Output Device

Input Device

Devices which send data to computer as an input are called “Input Device”. They are used to give input to computer for process.

Example Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner etc.

Central Processing Unit

This is the main part of the computer. It performs all logical and mathematical operations on input data and gives processed information as an output to the user.
It is the brain of the computer. It have some parts like Airthmatical & Logical Unit (ALU), Control Unit, Memory. All have some important task to generate output.

Output Device

Devices which gives processed informations to the user is called “Output Devices”. Information display on the devices.
User can use these as a soft copy or hard copy.

Example : Monitor, Plotter, Printer etc


Memory is the storage center of computer. It stores data and information.
User enter therir data as a input and it stores in a primary memory and after processing when it gives information as a result,
user will save this information as an output in secondary memory. It has two types:

  1. Primary Memory
  2. Secondary Memory

Primary Memory

It is also known as internal memory or volatile memory. Generally it gives space to data in temporary mode while cpu working on it.
It have two part, RAM and ROM. Data lost from RAM when power goes off. But ROM not works on that rule because it has written completely at the manufacturing time.
We can not write in ROM.

  1. RAM (Random Access Memory)
  2. ROM (Read Only Memory)

Secondary Memory

It is known as External memory or Non Volatile Memory. It is used to store information permanently.
Data does not delete when power goes off. It is slower than primary memory. It have various types :

  1. Hard Disk
  2. DVD Memory
  3. CD Memory
  4. Pen Drive
  5. SD Cards


Software is a program who runs the computer. Without software we can not use computer.
There are lots of program in computer. Some are system software, application software and utility software.
Each software are important according to its use.

System Software

A software which operates whole computer and its parts is called “System Software”.
It also gives platform to any program to run the specific task on the computer.
Other application program can not perform their task without the system software.

Example : Operating System (Windows, Linux).

Application Software

A software which are used to perform their own task is called Application Software. Like: MS Office etc.
It is used to perform official task like tables, documents etc. They are run on system software like windows.
They can run individually on computer. They are depend on system software.

Example : MS Office, Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Tally Accounting Software etc

Utility Software

A small software which are used to perform only a single task is called Utility Software. Like: Winzip, Music Player etc.
They are built to perform a single utility task. Some are built to play the music etc.
Example : Winzip, Winrar, Vlc Media Player etc.


Hardware is the physical part of the computer. All the physical unit comes in the hardware like monitor, keyboard, mouse, cable, printer etc.


Mouse is an input device. It is used to run the computer. Basically it is a graphical user interface device.
All the GUI computers are operated by mouse. We can give instructions to computer from the mouse. It comes in variety like optical mouse, Ps2 mouse etc.


Keyboard is an input device. It is used to give data as an input to computer.
It gives character user data to computer. It is very important for computer.


Scanner is an input device. It is used to give image as an input to computer. It gives image data to computer.
We can scan every image, hard paper with scanner and make a digital copy like JPEG, Tiff etc. It is very important for computer.


Monitor is an output device. It displays the information on screen. All the digital data is shown on computer.
There are various types of monitor like Lcd Monitor, Led Monitor etc.


Printer is an output device. It prints hard copy on paper. If any one wants a hard copy of a digital information then printer is used.
We can print information on paper with various sizes like A3, A4 etc. A4 is very important size due to office use.


Plotter is an output device. It prints large hard copy on paper.
If any one wants a large hard copy print of a digital maps then plotter is used.
We can print information on paper with various large sizes like A1,A2 etc.